Psychometric Measures and Other Resources

Research Center for Virtual Environments and Behavior


Spatial Orientation Test (SOT)

The Perspective Taking Spatial Orientation Test (SOT) was first developed by Kozhevnikov & Hegarty (2001) and Hegarty and Waller (2004) as documented in the following papers:

  • Kozhevnikov, M., & Hegarty, M. (2001). A dissociation between object manipulation spatial ability and spatial orientation ability. Memory & Cognition, 29 (5), 745-756.
  • Hegarty, M., & Waller, D. (2004). A dissociation between mental rotation and perspective-taking spatial abilities. Intelligence , 32 (2), 175-191.

The paper version of the test developed by Hegarty & Waller is below, titled "PTSOT". The procedure for scoring that test is also below, and is titled "Procedure for Scoring Perspective Taking Test".

Friedman et al. (2019) developed an improved version of the Spatial Orientation Test that has clearer instructions and in which uses non directional objects. They also developed a computerized version of this test,

  • Friedman, A., Kohler, B., Gunalp, P., Boone, A. P., & Hegarty, M. (2019). A computerized spatial orientation test. Behavior Research Methods , 52(2), 799-812. This paper is linked below.

The revised paper version is below, titled: PTSOT Revised by Friedman et al. (2009)

The computer and paper versions of the SOT, as well as the instructions for each test are available for downloading on the Open Science Framework website at

If possible, we recommend that you use the computer version, in which the scoring is automated. For more advantages of the computer version see Friedman et al. (2019).

File Downloads

Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSOD)

You are welcome to use the SBSOD in your research. Please cite the original article: Hegarty, M., Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. R., Lovelace, K., & Subbiah, I. (2002). Development of a self-report measure of environmental spatial ability. Intelligence30(5), 425-447. PDF

Santa Barbara Solids Test

You are welcome to use the Santa Barbara Solids Test in your research. Please cite the original article: Cohen, C. A., & Hegarty, M. (2012). Inferring cross sections of 3D objects: A new spatial thinking test. Learning and Individual Differences22(6), 868-874. doi: